originally posted by mario_ragucci small pox can be vaccinated against, and deadly gas can be avoided. [/b]
poor mario, at it again...
pure form - colorless liquid and vapor.
odor - almost none.
use - military chemical nerve agent.
caution: extremely toxic by all routes of exposure; emits very toxic fumes of fluoride and phosphorus oxides when heated to decomposition or reacted with steam.
gas is one of the most dangerous chemicals created. it is used in chemical warfare.
it is normally in its liquid state despite its name. it has a low volatility; is odourless and is an excellent adhesive. a special form has been developed that is so adhesive that it is virtually impossible to remove from the surface that it is in contact with. this leads to strategic attacks on enemy bases or airfields so that the vx remains stuck to the area and has the potential to kill any one attempting to use the base or airfield.
tabun - ga
in 1936, germany first developed tabun as an insecticide. dr. gerhard schrader first noticed the effects of nerve agents on humans when he and his lab assistant began to experience shortness of breath and contraction of the pupils. tabun was the first nerve agent discovered. ga is a clear colorless and tasteless liquid with a slightly fruity odor.
signs and symptoms:
the symptoms are: runny nose; tightness of the chest; dimness of vision and pin pointing of the eye pupils; difficulty in breathing; drooling and excessive sweating; nausea; vomiting, cramps, and involuntary defecation and urination; twitching, jerking, and staggering; and headache, confusion, drowsiness, coma, and convulsions. these symptoms are followed by cessation of breathing and death. symptoms appear much more slowly from a skin dosage than from a respiratory dosage. although skin absorption great enough to cause death may occur in 1 to 2 minutes, death may be delayed for 1 to 2 hours. respiratory lethal dosages kill in 1 to 10 minutes, and liquid in the eye kills almost as rapidly.
soman - gd
(pinacolyl methyl phosphonofluoridate)
soman was discovered in germany in 1944. gd is a lethal cholinesterase inhibitor. doses that are potentially life threatening may be only slightly larger than those producing least effects. soman is a colorless liquid when pure with a fruity odor. the industrial version is yellow-brown with a camphor-like odor.
signs and symptoms:
symptoms of overexposure may occur within minutes or hours, depending upon dose. they include: miosis (constriction of pupils) and visual effects, headaches and pressure sensation, runny nose and nasal congestion, salivation, tightness in the chest, nausea, vomiting, giddiness, anxiety, difficulty in thinking and sleeping, nightmares, muscle twitches, tremors, weakness, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, involuntary urination and defecation. severe exposure symptoms progress to convulsions and respiratory failure.
mustard - hd
(bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulfide)
although first synthesized in the 1800's, the germans first used mustard in 1917 during world war i. mustard (liquid) is colorless when pure, but is normally a brown oily substance. mustard (vapor) has a slight garlic- or mustard-like odor. mustard remains a health hazard for an extended period of time. mustard is a toxic agent that is considered non-lethal by the army. however, complications from mustard exposure can lead to death.
signs and symptoms:
an individual exposed to mustard will feel very little pain and will not notice symptoms for quite some time. however, the longer the exposure without removal of the mustard agent, the more severe will be the damage to affected areas of the body. mustard is a blister agent that affects the eyes, lungs and skin. the eyes are very susceptible, reacting to very low concentrations from mustard. exposure to mustard on the skin can range from redness and inflammation to severe blisters and extreme soreness. inhalation of the agent will cause irritation of throat, tightness of chest, hoarseness and coughing. if medical treatment is not received in the early stages of contamination, severe bronchopneumonia with accompanying high fever can occur.
there is no known antidote for mustard exposure; the process of cellular destruction is irreversible. therefore, it is very important to remove the mustard as quickly as possible. the best means of removal is by flushing with water and household bleach, or washing with soap and water after using an absorber of mustard, such as flour.
inhalation: hold breath until respiratory protective mask is donned. remove from the source. immediately. if breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. if breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should be used when approved mask-bag or oxygen delivery systems are not available. do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when facial contamination is present. seek medical attention immediately.
basically, from my pathetic understanding, as far as nerve gases go..although not all are really a feasible threat, mustard is really the only one that one would have a chance against...and a pathetioc, painful chance that would be....
how pray tell ,would we be able to avoid exposure to any of these? some are odorless, tasteless, colorless...
now for smallpox...here is a list of people who should not get the vaccine...it reallly includes a fair number of people if you stop and think about it..
eczema or atopic dermatitis. (this is true even if the condition is not currently active, mild or experienced as a child.)
skin conditions such as burns, chickenpox, shingles, impetigo, herpes, severe acne, or psoriasis. (people with any of these conditions should not get the vaccine until they have completely healed.)
weakened immune system. (cancer treatment, an organ transplant, hiv, or medications to treat autoimmune disorders and other illnesses can weaken the immune system.)
pregnancy or plans to become pregnant within one month of vaccination.
in addition, individuals should not get the smallpox vaccine if they:
are allergic to the vaccine or any of its ingredients.
are younger than 12 months of age. however, the advisory committee on immunization practices (acip) advises against non-emergency use of smallpox vaccine in children younger than 18 years of age.
have a moderate or severe short-term illness. (these people should wait until they are completely recovered to get the vaccine.)
are currently breastfeeding.