President Clinton did this! Not good!

  1. THE WHITE HOUSE

    Office of the Press Secretary
    For Immediate Release
    September 30, 1999

    EXECUTIVE ORDER

    IMPROVING HEALTH PROTECTION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL PARTICIPATING IN PARTICULAR MILITARY OPERATIONS

    By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1107 of title 10, United States Code, and in order to provide the best health protection to military personnel participating in particular military operations, it is hereby ordered as follows:

    Section 1. Policy. Military personnel deployed in particular military operations could potentially be exposed to a range of chemical, biological, and radiological weapons as well as diseases endemic to an area of operations. It is the policy of the United States Government to provide our military personnel with safe and effective vaccines, antidotes, and treatments that will negate or minimize the effects of these health threats.

    Sec. 2. Administration of Investigational New Drugs to Members of the Armed Forces.

    (a) The Secretary of Defense (Secretary) shall collect intelligence on potential health threats that might be encountered in an area of operations. The Secretary shall work together with the Secretary of Health and Human Services to ensure appropriate countermeasures are developed. When the Secretary considers an investigational new drug or a drug unapproved for its intended use (investigational drug) to represent the most appropriate countermeasure, it shall be studied through scientifically based research and development protocols to determine whether it is safe and effective for its intended use.

    (b) It is the expectation that the United States Government will administer products approved for their intended use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, in the event that the Secretary considers a product to represent the most appropriate countermeasure for diseases endemic to the area of operations or to protect against possible chemical, biological, or radiological weapons, but the product has not yet been approved by the FDA for its intended use, the product may, under certain circumstances and strict controls, be administered to provide potential protection for the health and well-being of deployed military personnel in order to ensure the success of the military operation. The provisions of 21 CFR Part 312 contain the FDA requirements for investigational new drugs.

    Sec. 3. Informed Consent Requirements and Waiver Provisions.

    (a) Before administering an investigational drug to members of the Armed Forces, the Department of Defense (DoD) must obtain informed consent from each individual unless the Secretary can justify to the President a need for a waiver of informed consent in accordance with 10 U.S.C. 1107(f). Waivers of informed consent will be granted only when absolutely necessary.

    (b) In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 1107(f), the President may waive the informed consent requirement for the administration of an investigational drug to a member of the Armed Forces in connection with the member's participation in a particular military operation, upon a written determination by the President that obtaining consent:

    (1) is not feasible;

    (2) is contrary to the best interests of the member; or

    (3) is not in the interests of national security.

    (c) In making a determination to waive the informed consent requirement on a ground described in subsection (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section, the President is required by law to apply the standards and criteria set forth in the relevant FDA regulations, 21 CFR 50.23(d). In determining a waiver based on subsection (b)(3) of this section, the President will also consider the standards and criteria of the relevant FDA regulations.

    (d) The Secretary may request that the President waive the informed consent requirement with respect to the administration of an investigational drug. The Secretary may not delegate the authority to make this waiver request. At a minimum, the waiver request shall contain:

    (1) A full description of the threat, including the potential
    for exposure. If the threat is a chemical, biological, or
    radiological weapon, the waiver request shall contain an
    analysis of the probability the weapon will be used, the
    method or methods of delivery, and the likely magnitude of its
    affect on an exposed individual.

    (2) Documentation that the Secretary has complied with 21 CFR
    50.23(d). This documentation shall include:

    (A) A statement that certifies and a written
    justification that documents that each of the criteria
    and standards set forth in 21 CFR 50.23(d) has been met;
    or

    (B) If the Secretary finds it highly impracticable to
    certify that the criteria and standards set forth in 21
    CFR 50.23(d) have been fully met because doing so would
    significantly impair the Secretary's ability to carry out
    the particular military mission, a written justification
    that documents which criteria and standards have or have
    not been met, explains the reasons for failing to meet
    any of the criteria and standards, and provides
    additional justification why a waiver should be granted
    solely in the interests of national security.

    (3) Any additional information pertinent to the Secretary's
    determination, including the minutes of the Institutional
    Review Board's (IRB) deliberations and the IRB members'
    voting record.

    (e) The Secretary shall develop the waiver request in consultation with the FDA.

    (f) The Secretary shall submit the waiver request to the President and provide a copy to the Commissioner of the FDA (Commissioner).

    (g) The Commissioner shall expeditiously review the waiver request and certify to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA) and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology (APST) whether the standards and criteria of the relevant FDA regulations have been adequately addressed and whether the investigational new drug protocol may proceed subject to a decision by the President on the informed consent waiver request. FDA shall base its decision on, and the certification shall include an analysis describing, the extent and strength of the evidence on the safety and effectiveness of the investigational new drug in relation to the medical risk that could be encountered during the military operation.

    (h) The APNSA and APST will prepare a joint advisory opinion as to whether the waiver of informed consent should be granted and will forward it, along with the waiver request and the FDA certification to the President.

    (i) The President will approve or deny the waiver request and will provide written notification of the decision to the Secretary and the Commissioner.

    Sec. 4. Required Action After Waiver is Issued.

    (a) Following a Presidential waiver under 10 U.S.C. 1107(f), the DoD offices responsible for implementing the waiver, DoD's Office of the Inspector General, and the FDA, consistent with its regulatory role, will conduct an ongoing review and monitoring to assess adherence to the standards and criteria under 21 CFR 50.23(d) and this order. The responsible DoD offices shall also adhere to any periodic reporting requirements specified by the President at the time of the waiver approval.

    The Secretary shall submit the findings to the President and provide a copy to the Commissioner.

    (b) The Secretary shall, as soon as practicable, make the congressional notifications required by 10 U.S.C. 1107(f)(2)(B).

    (c) The Secretary shall, as soon as practicable and consistent with classification requirements, issue a public notice in the Federal Register describing each waiver of informed consent determination and a summary of the most updated scientific information on the products used, as well as other information the President determines is appropriate.

    (d) The waiver will expire at the end of 1 year (or an alternative time period not to exceed 1 year, specified by the President at the time of approval), or when the Secretary informs the President that the particular military operation creating the need for the use of the investigational drug has ended, whichever is earlier. The President may revoke the waiver based on changed circumstances or for any other reason. If the Secretary seeks to renew a waiver prior to its expiration, the Secretary must submit to the President an updated request, specifically identifying any new information available relevant to the standards and criteria under 21 CFR 50.23(d). To request to renew a waiver, the Secretary must satisfy the criteria for a waiver as described in section 3 of this order.

    (e) The Secretary shall notify the President and the Commissioner if the threat countered by the investigational drug changes significantly or if significant new information on the investigational drug is received.

    Sec. 5. Training for Military Personnel. (a) The DoD shall provide ongoing training and health risk communication on the requirements of using an investigational drug in support of a military operation to all military personnel, including those in leadership positions, during chemical and biological warfare defense training and other training, as appropriate. This ongoing training and health risk communication shall include general information about 10 U.S.C. 1107 and 21 CFR 50.23(d).

    (b) If the President grants a waiver under 10 U.S.C. 1107(f), the DoD shall provide training to all military personnel conducting the waiver protocol and health risk communication to all military personnel receiving the specific investigational drug to be administered prior to its use.

    (c) The Secretary shall submit the training and health risk communication plans as part of the investigational new drug protocol submission to the FDA and the reviewing IRB. Training and health risk communication shall include at a minimum:

    (1) The basis for any determination by the President that
    informed consent is not or may not be feasible;

    (2) The means for tracking use and adverse effects of the
    investigational drug;

    (3) The benefits and risks of using the investigational drug;
    and

    (4) A statement that the investigational drug is not approved
    (or not approved for the intended use).

    (d) The DoD shall keep operational commanders informed of the overall requirements of successful protocol execution and their role, with the support of medical personnel, in ensuring successful execution of the protocol.

    Sec. 6. Scope. (a) This order applies to the consideration and Presidential approval of a waiver of informed consent under 10 U.S.C. 1107 and does not apply to other FDA regulations.

    (b) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Federal Government. Nothing contained in this order shall create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

    WILLIAM J. CLINTON

    THE WHITE HOUSE,
    September 30, 1999.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    •  
  2. 5 Comments

  3. by   pickledpepperRN
    Report from Kuwait:
    Gulf War Illnesses Strike Civilians and Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War
    By Prof. Garth L. Nicolson
    The Institute for Molecular Medicine
    15162 Triton Lane, Huntington Beach, CA 92649-1401

    As we came up over the ridge north of the town of Al-Jahra near the western end of the Bay of Kuwait on the highway from Kuwait City to Basra, Iraq little could be seen of the carnage that took place in the early morning hours of February 26, 1991. The war with the U.S.-led coalition forces was not going well for the Iraqi Army, and U.S. Marine and Arab coalition units were on the southern outskirts of Kuwait City. Iraqi forces remaining in Kuwait City were hastily attempting to withdraw north from Kuwait in a column of over a thousand vehicles, from Iraqi tanks to stolen civilian buses and cars, while U.S. Navy and Air Force ground attack aircraft plummeted them with cluster bombs and depleted uranium (DU) munitions. At the time, this was dubbed "The Highway of Death" by the press. Since the highway north must go over the ridge where we were now standing, it was a perfect trap for Suddam s forces. Unfortunately, many Kuwaiti civilians who were hostages probably also died that day on the Highway of Death. Our host, Professor Jassim Mohammad Al-Hassan of the Faculty of Science at Kuwait University where I spent the spring as a Distinguished Visiting Professor and lecturer, quietly told us that Kuwaiti Graves Units buried over 450,000 Iraqis in the deserts of Kuwait. As we approached one area where the sand appeared to have been piled into defensive berms, Professor Jassim related his wartime stories as a resistance fighter and then officer in charge of a burial detail along the Highway of Death. "We buried thousands of Iraqis here" as he pointed to an area just off the highway. Later as we came upon a fenced area, I asked Professor Jassim what was buried behind the fence. As it turns out, this was the new home of the radioactive Iraqi equipment that was hit with radioactive DU munitions. After the war, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Health ordered that all contaminated vehicles be buried in the sand to protect Kuwaitis from the health effects of DU.

    Depleted Uranium (DU) and the Gulf War

    Although DU contamination is only one of the several health problems that many Kuwaitis and veterans of Desert Storm face, it s a problem that won t go away quickly. Radioactive DU has a half-life of 4.4 billion years. DU is a by-product of uranium processing where the more enriched uranium (mostly U-235) is concentrated for use as nuclear reactor fuel [1]. The DU that is left over, hundreds of thousands of pounds of it or more, have been building up for decades around government uranium processing plants. Since it has such high density, someone determined that DU is very useful in a tungsten mixture for the construction of armor-penetrating munitions. Unfortunately, DU still contains about 30% of the radioactivity found in enriched uranium, and it is extremely dangerous to animals and humans [1]. When super-high velocity DU munitions hit their hardened targets, the kinetic energy is so high that the DU actually vaporizes and burns to form uranium oxide, a fine dust of DU oxide particles that slowly settles in the area and onto the sand where it can eventually contaminate ground water for hundreds of thousands of years. U. S. and British forces expended between 400-800 tons of DU during the Gulf War, and very little of extremely toxic material has been contained.

    Most of the recent health problems with DU presumably started with inhalation of the fine DU oxide particles and their lodgment at sites deep in the lungs. The irradiation of lung tissues surrounding DU oxide particles can result in a slow process of immune suppression and pneumonitis. Some of this DU oxide will eventually enter the body as uranium cations, and unfortunately, it has a tendency to concentrate in the bones, affecting bone marrow and blood cell production. It has been only recently that our military has been informing soldiers of the dangers of DU, but this may come too late for veterans of the Gulf War who inspected destroyed armored vehicles and bunkers or who were hit with friendly fire DU munitions. And DU is only one of the problems facing veterans of Desert Storm and civilians of Kuwait and Southern Iraq.

    Chemical Contamination of Kuwait in 1991

    During the spring of 1991 there was not much sunlight in Kuwait. Hundreds of oil well fires were still spewing unknown amounts of smoke and pollutants into the air, so much so that there was not much light reaching the ground, even at midday. Night or day during this period vehicles were required to use their headlights. This is the aftermath of Saddam s decision to sabotage the producing oil wells in Kuwait. Over 1,150 wells out of 1,313 operating wells were sabotaged in Kuwait by the Iraqi Army [2]. Not all of the wells caught fire, and many just released crude oil as gushers that contaminated the environment and formed many artificial oil lakes. The estimated loss was over 2 billion barrels of crude oil, of which several hundred million barrels formed into about 70 major oil lakes that proved to be disastrous to migratory birds [2]. Most of these lakes have now been drained, but the oil residues remain. Also, the Iraqi Army dug hundreds of miles of oil trenches that were to be ignited to form defensive lines of fire. Many of the sabotaged wells were destroyed to release oil into collecting lakes which then fed into the defensive trenches. It has been only recently that the Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR) has developed procedures to reclaim these oil lakes and trenches and turn them back to their prewar conditions. When we examined the KISR experimental reclamation project, it was clear that it will take many years if not decades to return the Kuwait environment to its prewar state. Although a survey of the environmental contamination has been conducted, a health survey of the population of Kuwait has not yet been undertaken.

    Illnesses in the Civilian Population of Kuwait After the Gulf War

    The polluted environment in Kuwait is not the only example that remains of the 1991 Gulf War. After discussions with Kuwaiti physicians who run the many clinics in Kuwait City and with the former Minister of Health Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Awadi, it is clear that many Kuwaiti civilians slowly became sick with Gulf War Illnesses. Our estimates of illness of approximately 15% of the civilian population have been confirmed by an independent survey conducted by Dr. Charles T. Hinshaw, past-president of the American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Similar to the over 100,000 U. S. veterans with Gulf War Illnesses, Kuwaiti civilians present with overlapping, complex, multi-organ chronic signs and symptoms . These include chronic fatigue, headaches, memory loss, muscle pain, nausea, gastrointestinal problems, joint pain, lymph node pain, memory loss, and other signs and symptoms. Often included in this complex clinical picture are increased sensitivities to various environmental agents and enhanced allergic responses. Are these civilians presenting with the same complex signs and symptoms found in our veterans? It appears so, but these illnesses are complex and are likely due to a variety of toxic environmental exposures and possibly opportunistic infections as well [3].

    The most common diagnosis of Kuwaiti civilians who have been ill since the Gulf War is Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Patients with chronic illnesses, such as CFS, Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS), Gulf War Illnesses (GWI) and some Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) usually have overlapping signs and symptoms, which led us to propose that these are somewhat similar clinical conditions that may have many different causes [3]. Although these syndromes have been known for several years, most patients with CFS, FMS, GWI or RA have had few options when it came to effective treatments. This may be due to the imprecise nature of their diagnoses, which are often based on clinical observations rather than laboratory tests that could identify underlying causes for their illnesses.

    Similarities Between CFS, FMS, GWI and Other Chronic Illnesses

    We have found that the signs and symptoms of CFS and FMS overlap with those found in GWI, suggesting that these are not separate syndromes, they are all CFS-like disorders [4]. The main distinguishing characteristic of FMS is severe muscle pain and soreness, and this can also be seen in many FMS, RA and GWI patients. In some cases, these illnesses have apparently spread to immediate family members. In the case of GWI, over 100,000 veterans of the Persian Gulf War in 1991 have been found to have this disorder, not including immediate family members. According to one government study, GWI has spread to family members [5], and it is likely that it has also spread in the workplace. Although this U.S. Senate committee study was incomplete, investigators found after surveying approximately 1,200 GWI families that 77% of spouses and a majority of children born after the war had the signs and symptoms of GWI [5]. Notwithstanding the official position of Department of Defense (DoD) remains that family members have not contracted GWI, this U. S. Senate study indicates that at least a subset of GWI patients have a transmittable illnesses [5]. Similarly, some CFS patients have complained that their immediate family members now show some of the signs and symptoms of CFS. In Kuwait this is also apparent, but careful studies of the illnesses in the Kuwaiti population are lacking.

    Does Stress affect CFS, FMS, GWI or RA?

    One of the most distressing aspect of the aftermath of the Gulf War was the determination of the DoD that most GWI cases can be attributed to stress [6]. Can stress affect health and chronic illnesses? Most researchers would agree that it can, especially by affecting the immune system, but the notion that stress is the cause of chronic illnesses like CFS, FMS, GWI and RA is, in our opinion, far fetched [7]. Patients with CFS, FMS, GWI and sometimes RA often have cognitive problems, such as short-term memory loss, problems concentrating and other psychological problems. In fact, psychologists or psychiatrists who examine CFS, FMS or GWI patients often find psychological or psychiatric problems in these patients and decide in the absence of contrary laboratory findings that these conditions are somatoform disorders. That means that these practitioners decide that these illnesses are caused solely by psychological or psychiatric problems, not medical problems that can be treated with medicines or treatments that are not specific for the Central Nervous System. Stress is often mentioned as an important factor or the important factor in these disorders. In particular, GWI patients are often diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in veterans and military hospitals [8]. The evidence that physicians have offered as proof that stress or PTSD is the source of most GWI sickness is the assumption that most veterans must have suffered from stress by virtue of the stressful environment in which they found themselves during the Gulf War [6]. In fact, U. S. veterans themselves do not feel that stress-related diagnoses are an accurate portrayal of their illnesses. Most testimony to the U. S. House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight studying the origins of GWI refutes the notion that stress is the major cause of GWI [8]. The General Accounting Office (GAO), the investigation arm of the U.S. Congress, after studying government and civilian data on the subject concluded that while stress can induce some physical illness, the statement that stress is the causes of GWI has not been established [9]. Similarly, evidence is lacking that stress can cause CFS, FMS or RA.

    Similar to environmental toxic exposures, such as chemicals and radiological agents, the main effect of stress appears to be that it can exacerbate chronic illnesses and suppress immune systems. But most military personnel that we interviewed, including highly disciplined U. S. Special Forces and Navy SEALS, indicated that the Gulf War was not a particularly stressful war, and they strongly disagreed that stress was the origin of their illnesses [7]. However, in the absence of physical or laboratory tests that can identify possible origins of CFS, FMS or GWI, many physicians accept that stress is the cause of these chronic illnesses. It was only recently that other causes have been seriously considered, including toxic chemical and biological exposures.

    Chronic Illnesses and Toxic Exposures: A Multi-Hit Process

    When trying to determine why chronic illness patients are sick, we feel it is imperative to have some idea of the types of toxic exposures that may have occurred. In the case of GWI and civilian illnesses in the Gulf Region, toxic exposures occurred in 1991 during and after the Gulf War, and this provides us with a baseline for study. As a control, we know that deployed military personnel were not sick before they were deployed, and this serves as a baseline to compare what may have happened in the Gulf Region in 1991. For example, all British, Canadian and U. S. military personnel had to pass a medical exam before deployment, and thus the chance that previously sick soldiers were deployed is very unlikely. We have assumed that chemical and biological and in some cases radiological exposures occurred during the Gulf War, and many civilian patients in Kuwait (or elsewhere) may have also been exposed to chemical and biological substances that could be an underlying cause of their illnesses [10].

    We have proposed that the complex signs and symptoms found in some CFS, FMS, GWI and RA patients maybe due to system-wide or systemic chronic infections following chemical or radiological insults that suppress the immune system. Thus this is a multistep process that may involve multiple toxic exposures (Figure 1). Chronic infections that are usually held in check by the immune system can take hold if they can avoid the host s immune surveillance and penetrate various tissues and organs, including the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems [11]. When such infections occur, they can cause the complex signs and symptoms seen in CSF, FMS and GWI, including immune dysfunction [4]. Changes in environmental responses as well as increased titers to various endogenous viruses that are commonly found to be expressed in these patients have been seen in CFS, FMS and GWI. If infectious agents are involved, few can produce the complex chronic signs and symptoms found in CFS, FMS and GWI and some RA patients. One type of airborne infection that has received renewed interest of late as an important element in these disorders is represented by the class Mollicutes [11]. These microorganisms, principally mycoplasmas and other rather primitive bacteria, although not well known agents in causing disease, are now considered important emerging pathogens in causing chronic diseases and may also be important cofactors in some illnesses, including AIDS and other Immunodeficiency Disorders, skin diseases and some autoimmune diseases [11].

    As chronic illnesses such as GWI (and in some cases CFS, FMS and RA) progress, there are a number of accompanying clinical problems, particularly increases in autoimmune problems. These include in some patients acquiring some of the signs and symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lew Gehrig s Disease), Lupus, Graves Disease, Arthritis and other complex autoimmune diseases. Such usually rare autoimmune responses are consistent with certain chronic infections, such as mycoplasmal infections that penetrate into nerve cells, synovial cells and other cell types. It is proposed that these autoimmune signs and symptoms are caused when intracellular pathogens, such as mycoplasmas and other bacteria, escape from cellular compartments. Some microorganisms like mycoplasmas can incorporate into their own structures pieces of host cell membranes that contain important host membrane antigens that can trigger autoimmune responses. Thus patients with such infections may be responding to microorganism antigens as well as their own membrane antigens, producing unusual autoimmune signs and symptoms.

    Microorganisms Cause Morbidity in Many CFS, FMS, GWI and RA Patients

    Most microorganisms like mycoplasmas are not considered as important human pathogens when they are found at superficial sites, such as the oral cavity, but some species, such as M. fermentans, M. penetrans, M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. pirum and M. hominis, among others, have the capacity to penetrate into blood and colonize various tissues and have been closely associated with various human diseases [11]. Do these agents cause CFS, FMS, GWI or RA? Not necessarily on their own, but microorganisms like Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Brucella, Coxiella and other bacteria and some viruses appear to be important in causing patient morbidity, or exacerbating the major signs and symptoms seen in patients with chronic illnesses. These patients may have had previous chemical or other toxic exposures that resulted in immune suppression. If such microorganisms are associated with chronic illnesses, is there any evidence for microorganism infections in CFS, FMS, GWI or RA patients? The answer is YES. In about 60% of CFS/ME, 70% of FMS, 50% of GWI and 55% of RA patients examined we and others, principally Dr. Daryl See of the University of California College of Medicine, Irvine, and Eli Mortechai of Medical Diagnostics of New Jersey, are finding strong evidence for mycoplasmal blood infections that can explain much if not most of the chronic signs and symptoms found in these patients. In our studies on GWI, a CFS/FMS-like illness [4], we have found mycoplasmal infections in the blood of about one-half of over 200 patients, and these patients were found to have principally one infectious species of mycoplasma, M. fermentans [12, 13]. However, in about 60% of the 150 civilians with CFS/ME, FMS or RA that we have examined we are finding a variety of pathogenic mycoplasma species, such as M. fermentans, M. penetrans, M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. pirum and M. hominis, in the white blood cell fractions of blood samples [14]. The tests that we use to identify mycoplasmal infections, polymerase chain reaction and nucleoprotein gene tracking, are very sensitive and highly specific for mycoplasmas. These tests are a dramatic improvement over the relatively insensitive serum antibody tests that are currently used to assay for systemic mycoplasmal infections. We have recently received a DoD contract to train scientists and physicians to perform these tests, including the training of staff from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Mycoplasmas aren t the only microorganisms found in GWI patients. We have preliminary evidence for Brucella, Coxiella and other chronic infections in GWI patients, and it is likely that at least some of these infectious agents will also be found in civilians with CFS, FMS or RA.

    Antibiotic/Vitamin/Nutritional Treatments for Chronic Illnesses

    When microorganism infections are identified in the white blood cell fractions of subsets of patients with CFS, FMS, GWI or RA, these patients can be treated as medical not psychological or psychiatric patients. If such infections are important in these disorders, then appropriate treatments with antibiotics should result in improvement and even recovery. This is exactly what has been found [12-14]. The recommended treatments for mycoplasmal blood infections require long-term antibiotic therapy [15, 16], usually multiple 6-week cycles of doxycycline (200-300 mg/day), ciprofloxacin or Cipro (1,500 mg/day), azithromycin or Zithromax (500 mg/day) or clarithromycin or Biaxin (750-1,000 mg/day). Multiple cycles are required, because few patients recover after only a few cycles [12, 13], possibly because of the intracellular locations of mycoplasmas and the slow-growing nature of these microorganisms. The clinical responses that are seen are not due to placebo effects, because administration of some antibiotics, such as penicillins, resulted in patients becoming more not less symptomatic, and they are not due to immunosuppressive effects of some of the antibiotics because others that do not cause immune suppression are also effective but only if they suppress mycoplasmal infections. Some of these patients recover to a certain point and then fail to continue to respond to the recommended antibiotics, suggesting that other problems, such as viral infections, chemical exposures and other toxic events also play an important role in these illnesses, and may play a predominant role in some patients. It is thus unlikely that there exists only one explanation for chronic illnesses, such as CFS, FMS, GWI or RA. Rather, it is probably a combination of multiple toxic exposures, chemical and biological, in combination with genetic susceptibility (immune systems and/or detoxification systems) that determines whether a person succumbs to chronic illness.

    Treatment recommendations for CFS/ME, FMS, GWI and RA patients with mycoplasmal infections are similar to those used to treat Lyme Disease, caused by other slow-growing intracellular bacteria that are difficult to identify and treat. Interestingly, CFS, FMS, GWI and RA patients that slowly recover after several cycles of antibiotics are generally less environmentally sensitive, suggesting that their immune systems may be returning to pre-illness states. If such patients had illnesses that were caused by psychological or psychiatric problems or by environmental or chemical exposures, they should not respond to the recommended antibiotics and recover their health. In addition, if such treatments were just reducing the autoimmune responses, then patients should not recover after the treatments are discontinued.

    The treatments of chronic illnesses due to toxic exposures from chemical or radiological agents are quite different from the treatment of chronic infections [3]. The treatment of chemically exposed patients usually involves removal of offending chemicals from the patient's environment, depletion of chemicals from the patient's system and treatment of the signs and symptoms caused by chemical exposure(s) . Chemically exposed patients are often extremely sensitive to a variety of commonly encountered chemicals, including perfumes and air freshners, petrochemical fumes, chlorine, cleaning solutions and solvents, among others. They are also very sensitive to certain foods, and special diets are often necessary, and in some cases direct skin contact with certain substances can cause strong cutaneous reactions. Therefore, an important part of treatment for chemical exposures requires limiting exposures to a variety of common chemicals and gradual removal of the toxic chemicals [17, 18].

    A comprehensive approach to the therapy of chronic illnesses must be undertaken [16]. In addition to antibiotics or removal of toxic agents, patients with CFS, FMS, GWI or RA have nutritional and vitamin deficiencies that must be corrected. For example, these patients are often depleted in vitamins B, C and E and certain minerals. Unfortunately, patients with these chronic illnesses often have poor absorption. Therefore, high doses of some vitamins must be used, and others, such as vitamin B complex, cannot be easily absorbed by the gut, so sublingual natural B-complex vitamins in small capsules or liquids should be used instead of oral capsules that are swallowed. General vitamins plus extra C, E, CoQ-10, beta-carotene, folic acid, bioflavoids and biotin are best. L- cysteine, L-tyrosine, L-carnitine and malic acid are reported by some to be useful. Certain minerals are also often depleted in GWI/CFS/FMS patients, such as zinc, magnesium, chromium and selenium.

    There are also other considerations [16]. Antibiotic use that depletes normal gut bacteria can result in over-growth of less desirable bacteria. To supplement bacteria in the gastrointestinal system yogurt and especially Lactobacillus acidophillus tablets are recommended. One product is a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus bifidus and FOS (fructoologosaccharides) to promote growth of these "friendly" bacteria in the gut. In addition, number of natural remedies that boost the immune system, such as whole lemon/olive extract drink or an extract of olive leaves with antioxidants are available and are potentially useful, especially during or after antibiotic therapy has been completed. Although these products appear to help some patients, their clinical effectiveness in CFS/GWI/FMS/RA patients has not been evaluated. They appear to be useful during therapy to boost the immune system or after antibiotic therapy in a maintenance program to prevent relapse of illness [16].

    For Further Information

    The Institute for Molecular Medicine can test patients for evidence of mycoplasmal infections of the types that cause human diseases like CFS, FMS, GWI and RA. Blood samples can be sent to the Institute for Molecular Medicine for mycoplasma and other testing. Since the IMM is a nonprofit institution, all testing is done at cost for a tax-deductible donation. The website for further information is: www.immed.org.

    Contact:

    Prof. Garth L. Nicolson
    The Institute for Molecular Medicine
    15162 Triton Lane
    Huntington Beach, CA 92649-1401
    Tel: 714-903-2900
    Fax: 714-379-2082
    email: gnicimm@ix.netcom.com

    References

    1. Null, G. The Gulf War s troubling legacy, Part I. Townsend Lett. Doctors 1998; 181: 100-108.

    2. Al-Hassan, J. M. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, an environmental catastrophe. Fahad Al Marzouk Press, Kuwait, 1992.

    3. Nicolson, G.L., Nasralla, M, Hier, J. and Nicolson, N.L. Gulf War Illnesses: role of chemical, radiological and biological exposures. In: War and Health, H. Tapanainen, ed., Helinsiki, in press, 1998.

    4. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Chronic fatigue illness and Operation Desert Storm. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 1996; 38: 14-16.

    5. U. S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, U. S. chemical and biological warfare-related dual use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf War , 103rd Congress, 2nd Session, Report May 25, 1994.

    6. NIH Technology Assessment Workshop Panel. The Persian Gulf Experience and Health. JAMA 1994; 272: 391-396.

    7. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. The eight myths of Operation Desert Storm and Gulf War Syndrome. Med. Conflict Surviv. 1997; 13: 140-146.

    8. U. S. Congress, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Gulf War veterans : DOD continue to resist strong evidence linking toxic causes to chronic health effects, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Report 105-388, 1997.

    9. U. S. General Accounting Office, Gulf War Illnesses: improved monitoring of clinical progress and reexamination of research emphasis are needed. Report GAO/SNIAD-97-163, 1997.

    10. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Chronic Fatigue Illnesses Associated with Service in Operation Desert Storm. Were Biological Weapons Used Against our Forces in the Gulf War? Townsend Lett. Doctors 1996; 156: 42-48.

    11. Baseman, J.B. and Tully, J.G. Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, reemerging, and burdened by their notoriety. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1997; 3: 21-32.

    12. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasmal infections in PersianGulf War Illness-CFIDS patients. Intern. J. Occup. Med. Immunol. Tox. 1996; 5: 69-78.

    13. Nicolson, G.L., Nicolson, N.L. and Nasralla, M. Mycoplasmal infections and Chronic FatigueIllness (Gulf War Illness) associated with deployment to Operation Desert Storm. Intern. J. Med. 1998; 1: 80-92.

    14. Nicolson, G.L., Nasralla, M, Hier, J. and Nicolson, N.L. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic mycoplasmal infections in Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: relationship to Gulf War Illness. Biomed. Therapy 1998; 16: 266-271.

    15. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Doxycycline treatment and Desert Storm. JAMA 1995; 273: 618-619.

    16. Nicolson, G.L. Considerations when undergoing treatment for chronic infections found in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Gulf War Illnesses. (Part 1). Antibiotics Recommended when indicated for treatment of Gulf War Illness/CFIDS/FMS (Part 2). Intern. J. Med. 1998; 1: 115-117, 123-128.

    17. Ziem GE. Multiple chemical sensitivity: treatment and followup with avoidance and control of chemical exposures. Toxicol. Ind. Health 1992; 8: 73-86.

    18. Rea WJ, Pan Y, Johnson AR, Ross GH, Suyama H, Fenyves EJ. Reduction of chemical sensitivity by means of heat depuration, physical therapy and nutritional supplementation in a controlled environment. J. Nutrit. Environ. Med. 1996; 6: 141-148.

    Hypothesis on the origin of some CFS, FMS and GWI due to multiple-hits from chemical, radiological and biological sources. Chemical exposure alone can cause Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) Syndrome and Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN), but this appears to be different from the chronic illnesses CFS, FMS, GWI, RA and others.

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  4. by   pickledpepperRN
    BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS AT THE TEXAS PRISONS
    My son became ill when he was 10 1/2 years old. The doctors, who have not been taught about human experimentation, stated it was a virus and to let it run its course. My son was having difficulty walking and before long was wheelchair bound. Yet, I was supposed to let the virus run its course. They were waiting for him to develop "the perfect square of cause and effect" for Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA).

    I began to study and found that the "cause" of most illnesses was the last thing on the medical community's mind. Treatment for the symptoms is the school of thought today and, of course, that brings in billions of dollars for pharmaceutical companies, the medical community and the health insurance companies, but little hope of a cure for the patient. It also allows medical universities and government entities to continue to "study" the effects of what they have created.

    In my research I discovered that our Texas prison inmates were injected with a mixture of pathogens (Minutes of the Texas Board of Corrections, 350th Meeting, September 13, 1976 and Agenda for Regular Meeting of the Texas Board of Corrections, 354th Meeting, May 16, 1977). Prior to these two documents there were 6 additional experiments involving the use of mycoplasma. The research funds for these experiments came from NIH, NIAID, and the USPHS.

    This mixture involved a bacteria which once had been thought not to be harmful to man. The early literature on this particular pathogen had it once labeled as a virus-like agent. Mycoplasmas were considered a contaminant, as was SV40. However, it was this bacteria which was involved in my son's illness and with the proper tetracycline derivative treatment, he no longer required the wheelchair and no longer suffered from the extreme pain in his joints. If his illness was a true viral infection, as he was diagnosed, the antibiotics would not have helped him at all. The tetracycline derivatives target wall-less bacteria, and mycoplasmas lack a cell-wall. The same tetracycline derivative my son was prescribed is also curing scleroderma. I don't believe this antibiotic is a wonder drug, it's merely targeting the mycoplasma.

    I was contacted by a mother from California where the physicians were waiting for her child to develop JRA. I recognized the frantic pitch in her voice as she explained the symptoms her child was experiencing and how the physicians pointed to her child as the problem. Later, the child was tested for mycoplasmal infection. The child tested positive and the appropriate antibiotic was prescribed and the child is able to enjoy playing once again. We are not related to this family and have never met them, so genetics was not involved in the similar illness of these two children. But the American people have been told that genetics play a major role in arthritic conditions.

    Normal lab tests will not show the mycoplasmal infections and the physicians were busy centering their attention on my son's mental health. The sanity of the child in California was also questioned. What I hypothesized (a co-infection of virus and mycoplasma) in 1997 through my research, the scientists/physicians/researchers working with federal grant monies injecting mixtures of pathogens in the Texas inmates knew 21 years earlier. In the researcher's own words he states:

    "Certain viral and mycoplasmal infections may be more important than others in causing pulmonary dysfunction acutely and possibly permanently".

    I gave birth to my son and know him better than any physician. I knew he was not lying about being ill. He suffered from chest pain, rashes that would come and go, fevers that would come and go, incontinence, confusion, joint pain, etc. He would pass out, turning blue around the lips, nose and eyes; while the physicians were implying he was faking. His knees were swelling and contracting 2 to 3 centimeters within seconds causing the pain. But, it wasn't until I began to measure with a centimeter tape when this was discovered. The sedimentation rates were normal except for one.

    The physicians did not believe my son until I found the biological experiments. I don't want to see anyone else going through what we went through, yet, I see it every day. I presented the document I discovered to one of my son's physicians and he stated it would be wise for him not to have a copy. I would suppose he chose not to rock the boat concerning his career, but in doing so, has become another example of physicians choosing "career" over the patient. I never took my son to see him again. The research I have done has been costly and the time involved can never be replaced. And what you learn will change your heart forever.

    WHY AREN'T RARE ILLNESSES REPORTABLE?
    There is a reason why rare illnesses are not reportable and why prison inmates' (both federal and state) illnesses are not included with the communities illnesses. It is because of the unauthorized human experimentation that has gone on in this country for years along with the continued cover-up and denials. If rare diseases were reportable, the American people would begin to see the clusterings in certain communities and begin to ask questions. It has been the victim's tax money which makes it possible to continue the experiments. Yet, you ask this nation of people today, to accept what you are saying as truth. From what I have learned, I know there is not one bacteria or virus that is completely understood, especially when you aerosolize it. You literally change its form when you aerosolize it.

    THE ANTI-SELF IMMUNE RESPONSE
    There is not a physician alive that can explain why and how someone's immune system turns against itself. Since the Bacillus globigii spores are capable of "genetic transformation" and could serve as "carriers" for pathogenic viruses, and someone comes along with a slightly weakened immune system from a viral infection, it could be possible for that person to become chronically ill some time later. That person would never know that he/she had been part of a government sponsored biological experiment using a pathogenic bacteria. And if that person would happen to recall the biological release which you plan, he/she would never be able to prove the connection between the Bacillus globigii exposure and the chronic illness.

    CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LAWS MUST BE CHANGED
    I love my country and the principles it was founded upon. But, somewhere our government has lost sight of what it was meant to do. So have our representatives. The representatives are afraid to stand for the truth and defend the citizen, whom they are elected to represent. The majority of scientists/physicians/researchers have sold out for notoriety and fortune and the oath of "never harm" is not considered. The government or state scientists who stand for truth pay a price for doing so. Their careers and reputation will be attacked. If this objection does nothing else, I hope that it makes a scientist re-think his or her role in human experimentation and assist in trying to change the laws.

    There is no one to protect the average citizen except another average citizen and that's what I'm trying to do. Until the laws are changed, holding any scientist/physician/researchers "criminally" accountable for putting anyone in harm's way (even if employed by the U.S. government), none of us will be safe. The laws must be changed to make it easier for an average citizen to file suit against the states which allows the experimentation to continue and the federal government for funding such projects.

    SAFEGUARDS IN PLACE FOR HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION
    The Nuremberg Code was in place during the biological testing of the Texas inmates. The Institutional Review Boards would review the protocols and give their approval. Universities were involved and hospitals. I found the reach of the government to be far and wide concerning human experimentation. There have been psychological experiments, radiation experiments, chemical experiments and biological experiments which involve the poor, the terminally ill, federal and state prison inmates, infants who can't communicate well enough to complain, the mentally impaired, the elderly, the homeless and our young daughters and sons in the military. There are no "safeguards" in place to protect the United States citizens. This must be changed.

    INFORMED CONSENT. "THE PERFECT SQUARE OF CAUSE AND EFFECT" AND KOCH'S POSTULATES
    There is no such thing as "informed consent" unless that individual is as educated as the scientist/physician/researcher who is conducting the study a.k.a. research a.k.a. clinical trial a.k.a. experiment. There is no such thing as a "perfect square of cause and effect" when pathogens have been mixed and modified and released in communities. Recently, a publication on ProMED stated the same thing concerning the "perfect square of cause and effect" in chronic illnesses. Koch's' postulates could not begin to apply to pathogens which have been modified or genetically engineered. A scientist could not reproduce an illness, as Koch's postulates require, unless they had been educated about human experimentation and the manipulation of what was once a normal germ.

    CLOSING STATEMENT
    I'm not a physician or a scientist. I am just a mother who has had to research out of necessity for my son because there seemed to be no answer to his illness from the medical community. Because of this continued research, I have made discoveries which I wish I never knew. But, I do know and I don't want anyone else being put in the same position.

    I object and strongly protest the releasing of the Bacillus globigii spores in aerosolized form. I don't trust what you say to be the truth because of the historical account of cover-up and denial which continues today. I pray you do not release this bacteria or any other form of bacteria or virus on United States citizens. Nothing short of the truth should be tolerated.

    Thank you for your time and consideration to this matter.

    Sincerely,

    Candace Brown

    Huntsville, TX 77342-6894


    cc: President William J. Clinton
    Vice President Al Gore
    Senator Phil Graham
    Governor George Bush
    Congressman Bob Filner
    Congressman James M. Talent
    Representative Edward Markey
    Representative Dan Ellis
    Senator Jane Nelson
    Senator Mike Moncrief
    Senator Ken Armbrister
    Senator Robert Duncan
    Representative Patricia Gray
    Representative Juan Hinojosa
  5. by   maureeno
    there is a higher percentage of Gulf War vets who are disabled than from WWI, Korea, or Vietnam. As I remember its like >30%.
    I have already posted info about the toxicity of DU muniitions; inhaled depleted uranium is making people sick in Iraq and Bosnia; it has also hurt our troops.

    http://allnurses.com/forums/showthre...t=DU+munitions
  6. by   Q.
    there is a higher percentage of Gulf War vets who are disabled than from WWI, Korea, or Vietnam. As I remember its like >30%.
    Do you have a source for this statistic? Also, it appears to be relative. We clearly had more troops in WWI and Nam than we deployed in the Gulf. I'm not sure how the Gulf, which had less troops, could surpass the rate of Vietnam vets, etc- even if every Gulf War vet was disabled.
  7. by   pickledpepperRN
    Originally posted by Susy K
    Do you have a source for this statistic? Also, it appears to be relative. We clearly had more troops in WWI and Nam than we deployed in the Gulf. I'm not sure how the Gulf, which had less troops, could surpass the rate of Vietnam vets, etc- even if every Gulf War vet was disabled.
    The % means relative to the number of surviving troops.

    http://www.gulfweb.org/doc_show.cfm?ID=748

    Many gulf vets file for disability
    ©Associated Press
    February 17, 2002

    The Persian Gulf War has been over for more than a decade, but questions about sick veterans linger.
    The Persian Gulf War has been over for more than a decade, but questions about sick veterans linger.
    Nearly 199,000 veterans -- or more than one in four -- who served in the Persian Gulf from August 1990 to July 1991 have filed disability claims, according to the Department of Veterans Affairs.
    "It's stunning," says Pat Eddington, author of Gassed in the Gulf: The Inside Story of the Pentagon-CIA Cover-Up of Gulf War Syndrome.
    Tens of thousands of Gulf War veterans have complained of illnesses including chronic muscle and joint pain, anxiety, fatigue and memory loss. The ailments have collectively been called Gulf War syndrome.
    But researchers have disagreed on the causes and even whether a syndrome exists.
    A study published this month in the British Medical Journal suggested that unexplained illnesses experienced by some Gulf War vets are not unique and should be placed in a general context of postcombat syndrome.
    But other researchers and veterans groups have blamed nerve gas, pesticides and vaccines for some sicknesses.
    The U.S. Department of Defense says there is a higher incidence of illness among Gulf War veterans when compared with military personnel who were not deployed in the region at the same time.
    But "putting a label to that or having an explanation -- we're not there yet," says Austin Camacho, spokesman for the department's deployment health support directorate.
    About $174-million has been spent on nearly 200 studies, but none has found conclusive proof that any illnesses were directly caused by the war, said Jim Benson, a VA spokesman.
    The VA recently announced that a preliminary study found Gulf War veterans are nearly twice as likely to develop ALS, known as Lou Gehrig's disease, as other military personnel.



    Scottsdale Tribune
    Sept. 26, 1999
    Barry Forbes Columnist

    They suffer excruciating muscle and joint pain, debilitating headaches, chronic fatigue. They experience memory loss and blackouts lasting minutes or even hours, regaining full consciousness miles away from a fading, fleeting memory. They undergo terrifying tremors and sudden seizures, falling uncontrollably, bruising and bleeding, time and again.
    Some are in wheelchairs. Some are dead. Others wish they were.
    Gulf War syndrome is hell. There's simply no other word to describe it. It's not at all what "peacekeepers" imagined when they volunteered to serve their country.
    To date, around 40,000 Gulf War veterans have registered with the Department of Defenses' Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program. Veterans Affairs says that's not nearly enough: Add another 70,000 victims to the total misery list.
    What causes Gulf War syndrome? After conducting well over 100 studies and spending in excess of $100 million, the government says it simply doesn't know.
    But in June 1996, the Department of Defense released a blockbuster scenario. It claimed that back in March 1991, the U.S. destroyed a large cache of chemical munitions at the Khamisiya depot in Iraq. The Defense Department and the CIA released computer-generated images of a wafting, toxic plume enveloping and possibly contaminating 100,000 troops. Voila--Gulf War Syndrome.
    The public swallowed the bait hook, line and sinker, but it turned out to be pure, unadulterated spin. One, the symptoms of Gulf War syndrome aren't even remotely close to the effects of chemical weapons. And two, many of those suffering from the syndrome hadn't been deployed in the Gulf.
    In fact, some had never even left American shores.
    What about Persian Gulf locals? There isn't a single reported case of Gulf War syndrome among the Kuwaitis, Egyptians or Israelis.
    So what did America's troops--and those of Canada and Great Britain--do to earn this dubious, debilitating distinction? A growing number of medical experts believe it was nothing more than rolling up their collective sleeves for the anthrax shot. (or shots to "protect" them against a possible biological attack, some received multiple inoculations.)
    The world's sole supplier of anthrax vaccine is Michigan Biologic Products Institute (MBPI) of Lansing, Michigan. The "institute" has been under intense scrutiny since February 1998, when FDA inspectors visited the plant and cited it for two dozen infractions.There were serious lapses in manufacturing and quality control. Several batches of the vaccine failed the potency test. Some had expired: many were improperly re-dated. Manufacturing line areas were filthy. Production was halted for several months.
    Critics went ballistic. The government responded by kicking in a couple million bucks-of our money-to spruce up the facility. But the same, highly questionable vaccine continues to be foisted upon unsuspecting troops.
    The Gulf War Veterans Association has declared war on anthrax immunizations. The vets point to sky-high casualty numbers incorporating myriad systemic reactions. They talk about terrible autoimmune diseases that are not easily diagnosed or treated. They quote Lt. General Ronald Blanck, commanding officer of Walter Reed Army Medical Center: Anthrax vaccine should continue to be considered as a potential cause for undiagnosed illnesses in Persian Gulf personnel...
    Attorney Mark Zaid represented the non-profit Veterans for Integrity in Government. He litigated a Freedom of Information act against the government. Among his discoveries: The first large-scale use of anthrax vaccine was the 150,000 servicemen inoculated during the Gulf War. Worse, despite government and manufacturer safety assertions to the contrary, long-term safety studies have yet to be undertaken.(Ironically, the stuff is so potent it's almost impossible to test on human beings.)
    That doesn't seem to faze the military establishment. Last year, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen approved implementation of a military-wide anthrax immunization plan-a total of six shots over 18 months plus annual boosters.
    A handful of armed forces personnel has declined the vaccine. Those who refuse the madness, endanger their careers and face confinement, forfeiture of pay, even dishonorable discharge. It's already happened.
    There is, however, light at the end of the tunnel. Congress is considering two bills (HR2548 and HR2543) to end the forced implementation of anthrax vaccine. It's voluntary in all other countries, including our coalition partners. It should be voluntary here in America.
    Military service is already a sacrifice. No one signed up to be a sacrificial lamb.
    Epilog: Last September, MBPI was purchased by BioPort Corp., a company partially controlled by retired Adm. William Crowe. BioPort immediately won a two-year, $29 million Pentagon contract to make anthrax vaccine for U.S. military personnel. Translation: unless Congress acts, don't look for any sudden sea change in the status quo...
    Barry Forbes can be reached at: bforbes@forbescompany.com
    By Audrey Hudson
    THE WASHINGTON TIMES
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    House Republicans want the Defense Department to eliminate mandatory anthrax vaccines until long-term health studies on potential harmful side effects can be done.
    They said yesterday that reports of adverse reactions to the vaccine have damaged military morale and prompted many military people to resign.
    "Our military readiness is at stake," said Rep. Walter B. Jones Jr., North Carolina Republican.
    Mr. Jones, along with Rep. Benjamin A. Gilman, New York Republican and chairman of the International Relations Committee, announced two pieces of legislation during a press briefing. One bill would make the program voluntary rather than mandatory, the other would suspend the program until the National Institutes of Health conducted a study.
    "The two bills differ in their approach to the problem, but they have a common goal to halt the mandatory aspect of the anthrax vaccination program," Mr. Gilman said.
    "Since the announcement of the mandatory vaccination program in 1997, a growing number of military personnel -- particularly Guard and Reservists -- have chosen to resign rather than take what may be an unsafe anthrax vaccine," Mr. Jones said.
    "Now military personnel across the country are struggling with their options," Mr. Jones said.
    The legislation is getting support from the other side of the aisle.
    "When five Republicans are questioning the Department of Defense, you know something is wrong," said Rep. Bob Filner, California Democrat.
    "When five Marines are court-martialed because they are concerned they may not be fit for duty if they take a vaccine, and when 30 percent of the pilots in a reserve unit resign rather than take this vaccine, we have clear signals that something is wrong," said Rep. Dan Burton, Indiana Republican.
    Anthrax is a potentially fatal bacterial infection and is the primary biological warfare threat faced by U.S. forces.
    Mr. Burton, who chairs the House Committee on Government Reform, also held a hearing yesterday on whether the risks of many vaccines outweigh public benefits.
    One Defense Department employee testified that her health deteriorated severely after receiving an anthrax vaccine. She said she was concerned about her daughter, a first lieutenant in the Air Force, who also was being ordered to take the vaccine.
    "I believe that I experienced deleterious effects from the vaccines and that my daughter would also since she shares my biological makeup," said Antonia Spaith, international project manager in the chemical and biological elimination branch.
    Mr. Burton's committee, which has been investigating the vaccine program, says members of the military are afraid to come forward.
    "We learned that there is fear in the ranks about reporting and that the Department of Defense filters their reports before sending them to the Food and Drug Administration," Mr. Burton said.
    Copyright © 1999 News World Communications, Inc.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Published: Tuesday, September 19, 2000
    Ellen Tomson, staff writer

    The American Gulf War Veterans Association estimates 300,000 of the 700,000 troops serving at the time of the Gulf War conflict are sick as a result of their military duty.
    ``The American public is not aware at all of the severity of the illness and the numbers of people ill,'' says Joyce Riley, a spokesperson for the veterans group.

    The group has concluded that some veterans are suffering from a communicable disease that has been passed on to spouses and children, according to Riley, who planned to speak on the issue today at the Capitol.

    Riley, who served as a captain in the United States Air Force and flew on C-130 missions in support of Operation Desert Storm, never served in the Gulf. Yet, she says, she became ill in 1991 with symptoms like those of Gulf veterans. She and others charge they were ``guinea pigs'' for experimental uses of vaccines.

    The Department of Defense acknowledges some 90,000 veterans have symptoms ranging from headaches and joint pain to more serious problems, according to Lt. Col. Dian Lawhon, of the department's Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses. About 20,000 veterans in this group have undiagnosed illnesses.

    One instance of the release of sarin gas has been confirmed , Lawhon said. One vaccine was used in an attempt to protect some troops from possible exposure to a deadly nerve gas. Its use for this purpose was ``investigational,'' according to Lawhon. Long-term effects of sarin gas and the vaccine are not known. About 150,000 troops received anthrax and about 8,000 troops, mostly special forces, received treatments meant to protect them against botulism.

    ``We do know that people are sick, but all we can do is treat the symptoms when we don't have diagnoses,'' Lawhon says.
    (c) 2000 PioneerPlanet / St. Paul (Minnesota) Pioneer Press - All Rights Reserved

    http://www.pioneerplanet.com/yhoo/mtc_docs/019771.htm





    Links for Desert Storm Vets:
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/gehrig.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news3.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/study.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/schw.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/letter.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/testimon.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/senate.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/105-388.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/105-388.htm
    http://www.millersgulfwar.org/cdcpag.html
    http://www.millersgulfwar.org/index2b1.html

    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/news11.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/bio.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/record.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/war.htm
    http://www.gulfwarvets.com/attention.htm
    http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/a...toc.htmAmerican Gulf War Veterans Associati

    Ardie Siefken, Director
    909 8th STREET PO BOX 613
    DESHLER, NE 68340-0613
    PHONE : 402-365-4452
    E-MAIL : ardie@gpcom.net
    Last edit by pickledpepperRN on Feb 21, '03

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